SSI EX ron&e THOMAS TWINING. The Founder of the House of Twining. [1675-1741] After the original picture by Hogarth. THE TWININGS IN THREE CENTURIES. (gnnafe of a Bonbon 1710-1910. With Portraits and Illustrations. Published by R. TWINING & Co., Ltd. (Tea- men to His Majesty), on the occasion of the celebration of the bicentenary of the first estab- lishment of their business by Thomas Twining at ye sign of ye Golden Lyon in ye Strande. COPYRIGHT E.NTKRED AT STATIONERS' HALL. The Twinings in Three Centuries T is in the eternal fitness of things that the bicentenary of the birth of the great lexicog- rapher who confessed himself a " hardened, shameless tea drinker, whose kettle had scarcely time to cool," should be almost immediately followed by the two-hundredth anniversary of Thomas Twining's trans- formation of "Tom's" Coffee House (the trysting place of Pope, Akenside and Birch) into an emporium for the sale and con- sumption of what was still timidly spoken of as "the new China herb." That " excellent, and by all Physicians approved, China drink called by the Chineans 'Tscha,' by other nations 'Tay' alias Tee," had been sold at the " Sultane's-Head Coffee House near the Royal Exchange " in the year succeeding the Restoration ; Edmund Waller, the courtier-poet, had inter- mingled his praises of Catherine of Braganza ("the best of queens") with that of Tea ("the best of herbes"), and Samuel Pepys had greatly commended " the China drink which he had never before tasted " ; but at the beginning of Queen Anne's reign, the dawn of what Lord Tennyson describes as " The teacup times of hood and hoop And when the patch was worn," the coffee-houses and the tea-houses of the metropolis were still in the proportion of something like three thousand to three. The accession of a Queen who loved tea (she called it " tay ") just as ardently as her sister hated it, and the setting up of the sign of the "Golden Lyon" by Thomas Twining early in 1710, combined to bring about a sudden revolution A TEA DRINKER IN 1771. From the Mezzotint of J. Greenwood after N. Hone. (A portrait of the Painter's Daughter.) TEA DRINKING AT THE PANTHEON, OXFORD STREET.  From the Mezzotint by Humphrey, after Edwards. in public feeling. Pope, who made tea rhyme with obey, saluted Her Majesty in the oft-quoted lines: " Here, thou, great ANNA ! Whom three realms obey, Dost sometimes counsel take and sometimes tea," while Nahum Tate, the Poet Laureate of 1715, wrote: " Thus our tea conversations we employ Where with delight, instruction we enjoy Quaffing, without the waste of time or wealth, The sovereign drink of pleasure and of health." In 1711 Queen Anne appointed Thomas Twining her " purveyor of teas," and the distinction has been continued by her successors ever since, the records of the accounts of eight sovereigns forming an interesting department of the " Golden Lyon " archives. From the day Thomas Twining opened his doors the popularity of "the grand elixir " amongst all conditions of men and women increased by leaps and bounds, and in the person of Peter Motteux, the once despised " China drink " discovered a versifier wholly devoted to the laudation of what was now a royal beverage. According to Motteux, a fierce contest took place amongst the gods as to the merits of the "decoction," which found an eloquent champion in " modest" Hebe ; Bacchus made a good fight for the juice of the grape, but "forc'd, drank sober tea at last " while listening to his condemnation : " ' Immortals, hear,' said Jove, ' and cease to jar ! Tea must succeed to wine as peace to war ; Nor by the grape let men be set at odds, But share in tea, the nectar of the gods.' " Up to the end of the first decade of the eighteenth century the rival coffee - houses, " Tom's " and the " Grecian," drew crowds to Devereux Court, while close by was " George's " (only a little less fashionable), where Shenstone could read all the lesser pamphlets of the day for a shilling subscription. Addison, Steele, Goldsmith and Newton were all habitues of the " Grecian." The first of them, at any rate, must have bestowed some of his patronage on Twining, of " Tom's," under the new order of things, for in a number of "The Freeholder" in 1715 he writes of a lady who had "a design of keeping an open tea-table, where every man shall be welcome that is a friend to King George." During the reign of the first two Hano- verian monarchs the bold venture of Thomas Twining prospered exceedingly. "Altho" tea cost from twenty to thirty shillings a pound," Mr. Edward Walford writes, " great ladies used to flock to Twining's house in Devereux Court (then, as now, the premises occupied by the premier English tea-house cover the whole space lying between the Strand and the shady old-world quadrangle, on the walls of which the words 'This is Deveraux Courte, 1676' can still be read) in order to sip the enlivening beverage in very small china cups, for which they paid their shillings, much as nowadays (Walford wrote in the * eighteen - seventies ') they sit in their carriages eating ices at the door of Gunter's in Berkeley Square on hot days in June." A curious illustrated broadside of about 1740 has come into the writer's possession which depicts the scene at Twining's very happily. In the accompanying verses Peter Motteux's " nectar of the gods " is first associated with feminine tittle-tattle : " The Smell how fragrant ! and the Form how nice ! 'Tis good in ev'ry Thing, but in the Price. Unnumbered Sums the wearied Merchants get, And Husbands tremble at th' approaching Fleet ; I wist not what its name in Heav'n may be To us below 'tis known by that of TEA. Ladies of all Degrees at this repast For all Degrees of Mischief have a Taste." The half century which followed the setting up ot the sign of the " Golden Lyon " in the Strand was an epoch in which the tea-garden played almost as important a part as the tea-house. One of these popular places of amusement and refreshment, Mr. Boulton tells us, occupied the very site of the present underground railway station at King's Cross, while others flourished on the spot which is now a very wilderness of railway bridges and shunting grounds behind the great termini in the Euston Road. As time went on the tea-gardens spread over a tract of country which included Bayswater on one hand and Stepney on the other, stretched out to Kilburn, Belsize, Hampstead, Hornsey and Dalston, and studded generously the whole district so IN 1750. DR. JOHNSON TAKING TEA WITH MRS. THRALE IN THE BOROUGH, CIR. 1770-80. 10 included with those popular resorts, the names of whose springs, proprietors or attractions are yet preserved in the names of the streets which to-day cover the scenes of their " ancient delights." The glories of Islington Spa or New Tunbridge Wells were only completely extinguished in the reign of Queen Victoria, although Ned Ward had extolled its lime avenues, its tea-house, its dancing saloon and its gaming tables. In 1733 the Princesses Caroline and Amelia were often to be seen at Islington Spa, and they occasionally graced with their presence the tea-tables of Bagnigge Wells, situate a little to the north of the Clerkenwell Police Court, and famous in the days of Thomas Twining for its early breakfasts, at which tea, bread and butter and cakes made on the premises were consumed in enormous quantities. In February, 1788, Robert Sayer published a delightful print of a scene at Bagnigge Wells Gardens. Beneath it ran the lines : " All innocent within the shade you see This little Party sip salubrious Tea, Soft Tittle-Tattle rises from the stream Sweeten'd each word with Sugar and with Cream." The joys of afternoon tea were seemingly already appreciated in the reign of George II, for George Colman the elder, in his prologue to David Garrick's " Bon Ton," wrote : " Bon Ton's the space 'twixt Sunday and Monday, 'Tis riding in a one-horse chair on Sunday, 'Tis drinking tea on summer afternoons At Bagnigge Wells with china and gilt spoons." A little later " Marybone Gardens " and Music became the rage of the town, but Tea still continued to hold its own, supplemented in 1759 by Miss Trusler's almond cheese cakes, twelve-penny tarts and rich plum cakes. This lady assured her patrons that at her Bread and Butter Manufactory nothing was used but the choicer sorts of " the China Herb " (such as was sold at the " Golden Lyon "), the best loaf sugar and the finest Epping butter. Tinney published an engraving of the groves and latticed arbours of " Marybone" in 1755, and years later its simple 11 beauty is said to have inspired George Morland's lovely painting the "Tea Garden," the engraved plate after which is now one of the prizes of the sale rooms. Near Penton- ville stood Copenhagen House and White Conduit House, two of the great northern tea-gardens which vied alike with Bagnigge and " Marybone," and a little further on the " Adam and Eve " at Tottenham Court. Here several generations of London citizens regaled themselves " with tea, hot loaves, and milk from cows which eat no grains." Throughout the greater part of the eighteenth century the tea-garden prospered equally on both sides of the Thames. Vauxhall, Finch's Grotto, Cuper's and Belvidere Gardens and Bermondsey Spa were all approached by water, nor must be forgot the little group of Chelsea tea-gardens known as "Strombolo House," and " Jenny's Whim." The fame of the " Chelsea bun " is the sole surviving memory of these river-side Symposia. The love of the tea-house is common to both the age of Joseph Addison and Richard Steele and that of Samuel Johnson and David Garrick. " Twining's " in the Strand was almost as close to Drury Lane as it was to Johnson's haunts in Temple Lane and Johnson and Bolt Courts. It may safely be conjectured that a visit to Devereux Court must have inspired Colley Gibber when he wrote : " Tea ! thou sober, sage, and venerable liquid; thou female ton ge- running, smile-soothing, heart-opening, wink-tipping cordial, to whose glorious insipidity I owe the happiest moments of my life, let me fall prostrate." Johnson's connection with both Tea and Twining's will be spoken of later on. For the moment it suffices to say that the colossus of Literature was at the same time the chosen champion of the " crumpled leaf from China," in defence of which he broke more than one lance with Jonas Hanway and John Wesley. There was no half-heartedness either in the advocacy or the predilections of the Sage of Fleet Street. He avowed himself to the world at large as " a hardened and shameless tea-drinker, who has for twenty years diluted his meals with only the infusion of this fascinating plant, whose kettle has scarcely time to cool ; who with tea amuses the evening, with tea solaces the midnight, and with tea welcomes the 12 A SCENE AFTER PITT'S REDUCTION OF THE TEA TAX.  13 DR. JOHNSON TAKING TEA WITH MRS. BOSWELL IN THE HIGHLANDS. 14 morning." Amongst Johnson's intimate friends was the Rev. Thomas Twining, the translator of Aristotle's " Poetics," and curiously enough the miscellaneous writings of the great dictionary-maker contain far more numerous references to the Strand than to Fleet Street. Several anecdotes exist as to adventures which befel Johnson in his walks through that historic thoroughfare, and in his poem " London " he writes : " For who would leave, unbrib'd, Hybernia's land ? Or change the rocks of Scotland for the Strand ? " Besides, the tea-houses and taverns of the Strand were quite as celebrated as those of Fleet Street. Amongst the " houses " in or near the Strand more or less frequented by Johnson were the " Crown and Anchor," quite close to the " Golden Lyon," the " Pine Apple " in New Street, Covent Garden, the " Somerset Coffee House " and the " Turk's Head," opposite Catherine Street. It must not be forgotten that Johnson's first London lodgings were at Norris the stay-maker's in Exeter Street, and later he lived for some time in Bow Street, not much further away. The object of the following pages is to recall, as briefly as may be, the various incidents which have made the annals of the Twinings in Three Centuries not only an interesting and important chapter in the History of London, but in that of the Commerce of the British Empire. From the Middle Ages down to the present time the name of Twining has been a familiar one throughout the verdant Vale of Evesham. About two miles north of Tewkesbury lies the village of Twyning, the name of which is supposed to be derived from a combination of Saxon words denoting " two meadows," on the borders of the stream formed by the junction of the Severn and the Avon. The ferry was known as "Twyning's Fleet," and nowhere in all Gloucestershire is the land more fertile than in the neighbourhood of Twyning. In pre- Reformation times many religious houses flourished there, and John Twining, the 26th Mitred Abbot who received the Benediction on August 22nd, 1474, ruled till 1488 over the abbey of Winchcombe. 15 It may be interesting to note that yet another member of the family in Holy Orders was Richard Twining, Monk of Tewkesbury, who was ordained a Regular Priest in Worcester Cathedral on December igth, 1472. As a monk he would have been present on the famous day of the Battle of Tewkesbury in 1471, when the Lancastrian Army, under the Duke of Somerset and Queen Margaret, was completely defeated by Edward IV. and his brother Richard, and the troops took refuge in the abbey. The victorious Yorkists followed ; Edward arrived at the porch with the intention of dragging the fugitives out, or of killing them. The abbot, however, came from the altar, where he had been celebrating Mass, and holding the consecrated wafer in his hands, forbade the king to commit such sacrilege, and refused to let him pass till he had consented to spare the lives of the refugees. This prayer was granted, and all present joined in a solemn service of thanksgiving for victory and safety. At the dissolution of the Tewkesbury monastery, Frater Thomas Twining was amongst the pensioners, and fully a hundred years later another John Twining, a sturdy Royalist, was accused of assisting in the defence of the garrison of Evesham against Cromwell, for which he suffered both imprisonment and forfeiture. It seems that the Twinings were more numerous at Pershore and Painswick than even at Twyning itself. On a board in Painswick Parish Church it is recorded that in 1724 one Thomas Twining gave 5 towards the village schools then founded. In all probability this refers to the Thomas Twining whose baptism took place in 1675, an ^ whose migration to London was the indirect cause not only of the past, present and, let us hope, future prosperity of London's premier Tea House, but of the uncontrovertible fact that no fewer than eight of his descendants, male and female, figure conspicuously in the " Dictionary of National Biography." The founder of " Twining's," and the originator of the "Golden Lyon," first resided in St. Giles's, Cripplegate, where he became a Freeman of the " Weavers' " Company. The circumstances under which the transformation of " Tom's " Coffee House into " Twining's Tea House " took place in 1710 have already been alluded to. They speak volumes 16 DANIEL TWINING. The Second Head of the House of Twining. [1713-1762] After the original picture by Hudson. 17 DIAL HOUSE. The Twickenham Home of the Twinings. (After the original water colour by Elizabeth Twining, 1870.) 18 both for the foresight and the enterprise of the young man from Painswick, who long before he was thirty had left the picturesque little village on the banks of the Avon which had in its day sent forth brave warriors to the Crusades, and, later still, had supplied men who risked their lives and possessions in the cause of " king and country " for the purpose of seeking his fortune in the metropolis, and, as fate subsequently willed it, within a few paces of Temple Bar. Between 1710 and his death, just thirty-one years later, Thomas Twining and his business flourished exceedingly: " Twining's Teas " became a household word, and in an incredibly short space of time the head of the house, as one of London's most prosperous citizens, gave a sitting to the great Hogarth for the striking portrait now reproduced in facsimile as a frontispiece to these pages. He lived for some time wholly in Devereux Court, but it was probably his boyish recollections of the Avon and the Severn which induced him, at an early period in his prosperous career, to build a country mansion at Twickenham, in close proximity to the Thames, which received the name of Dial House. Here, for the best part of two centuries, resided, as far as the exigencies of a constantly increasing business would allow, representatives of successive generations of the Twinings. Twenty years ago, Richard Twining III, on behalf of the whole family, presented Dial House to the living of Twickenham, to replace a vicarage which had become uninhabitable. It was almost entirely rebuilt, but the quaint features of the original structure have been carefully preserved, and the weather-worn dial by which at least eight generations of Twinings regulated their watches, before setting out for the scene of their successes in the Strand, still forms part of the fagade. On the death of Thomas Twining, in 1741, he was succeeded by his son Daniel, born at Devereux Court in I 7 I 3> who had previously been a member of the firm. Under his energetic guidance the prosperity of the " Golden Lyon" grew by leaps and bounds. The portrait of Daniel Twining now given bears the date 1756. He became the father of three sons Thomas, Richard and John. The second son, Richard, was born at Devereux Court in 1749, and was sent, before reaching his teens, to Eton. At the age 19 of sixteen he entered his father's business, for which he soon showed singular aptitude. Daniel Twining died in 1762, but before this date he had taken into partnership Nathaniel Carter, a nephew, son of his sister Margaret, who had married Philip Carter. An old billhead of the firm, of 1757, engraved "Twining & Carter," is reproduced in this book. Between that time and 1782 the whole conduct of the affairs of the " Golden Lyon " remained in the capable hands of Mary Twining, his widow, the style of the firm in 1778 (or possibly a little earlier) being " Mary Twining & Son," although in 1763 she must have had sole control, since Kent's London Directory of that date gives " Mary Twining, Tea Warehouse, Devereaux Court, Strand." She was succeeded by this son, Richard I, who was joined by his brother John. In 1791 the bills were headed " Richard and John Twining," but possibly this superscription may be of still earlier date. It was a period of acute crisis in the tea trade, but his energy, acumen and special knowledge not only enabled " Twining's " to triumphantly weather the storm, but contributed very largely to the solution of the difficult problem by the legislative enactments of 1784-6, known as the Commutation Acts. In 1770 the enormous duties on tea and the constant interference with the trade by Parliament had destroyed many of the weaker firms, while the absolute monopoly now enjoyed by the East India Company was only mitigated by the wholesale smuggling of Java teas from Holland. Richard Twining from his youth upwards had carefully studied the political and fiscal questions affecting the tea trade. On forming his first Administration in 1783, William Pitt, as Chancellor of the Exchequer, found himself at his wits' end to raise revenue, owing to the abuses of the Customs laws, especially with regard to tea. In his trouble he wisely turned for assistance to the man who knew most about the subject, and who was, moreover, one of the very few that could be trusted. Richard Twining's advice was that tea should be admitted free of duty, and that the merchants, in consideration of this relief, should pay a lump sum to the Treasury to make up the loss of revenue for four years. Pitt accepted the plan, which Twining helped him to put into proper shape, the Com- 20 THE INDENTURE OF DANIEL TWINING AS AN APPRENTICE TO HIS FATHER, THOMAS TWINING, 1727. 21 JOHN TWINING. [1760-1827] THIRD SON OF DANIEL TWINING AND MARY LITTLE. From the Mezzotint by C. Turner, after J. J. Halls. 22 MARY TWINING. [1804-1839] ELDEST DAUGHTER OF RICHARD TWINING II. From the Mezzotint by C. Turner, after H. Singleton. 23 A TWINING BILL-HEAD OF 1735. 24 mutation Act was passed, and within the four years the consumption of tea in the United Kingdom had risen from 4,750,000 Ibs. to 15,850,000 Ibs. Meanwhile, the revenue had not suffered at all, but, on the contrary, had greatly gained. The price of tea to the public had fallen by nearly $s. per lb., but the merchants were more than compensated by the larger trade and the exemption from duties and bonding charges. The only people who suffered were those who made a dishonest living by smuggling, adulterating or fabricating tea. This was the crowning achievement of Richard Twining's useful life. In Septem- ber, 1784, as chairman of the Dealers in Tea, he made a most able appeal to the East India Company towards lowering the prices of the commodity. He was himself elected a director of the East India Company in 1793, and most nobly prevailed on the Court to relinquish the pernicious system by which directors were enabled to make private fortunes at the expense of the shareholders. That was the death-blow to the Company's monopoly, though it lingered on, with various modifications, until 1834, when it was finally abolished, to the infinite satisfaction of all honest men. He may also be said to have been the "Tract- writing Twining," for he wrote several pamphlets on a variety of subjects, attacking different impositions and abuses, such as the " Window Tax," 1785, "An Answer to the Second Report of East India Directors respecting Sale and Prices of Tea," 1785, " Observations on the Ex- pediency of Making a Bye- Law to Prevent the Sale of the Commands of East India Ships," 1796, and others. As might be supposed, he was attacked in return, for in the former year was issued _ "Tim Twisting to Dick AN EARLY TWINING TEA JAR. Twining, or a Seaman to a 25 Teaman," whilst Thomas Lowndes of Hampstead Heath published, in 1810, partly in prose and partly in verse, "A Letter to Mr. Richard Twining, Tea Dealer, and one of the candidates for the present vacancy in the East India Direction," criticising his ambition, in which he says : " My gentle Twining, banish such envious thoughts ; Thou a Director ! thou a King of India ! The very stones would laugh and prate of it ... Twining, I charge thee, fling away ambition, By that sin fell the angels ; How then can a dealer in tea, Hyson, green and bohea, Hope to win by't." However, this lampoon notwithstanding, Richard Twining again won his Directorship. It was not till the beginning of 1817 that Richard Twining decided to finally relinquish that most coveted honour, a seat at the Council Board of the India House. On the receipt of his letter announcing his determination to retire, the Chairman wrote to express the " unanimous feeling of regret with which the Court had received his intimation, and the sense they entertained of the services which he had rendered to the Company." Richard Twining generally devoted his annual holiday to some useful excursion, and this in an age when travellers were few and locomotion difficult. As early as 1772 (in the stormy days of the Tea crisis) he discovered the beauties of Penzance and realised the climatic advantages of Cornwall ; he was at Paris in 1786, when the events which presaged the great social and political upheaval of four years later were but as a small cloud on the horizon ; in 1796 he revelled in the scenery of North Wales. " On his earlier home journies," writes one of his descendants, " my grandfather was wont to travel on horseback, with a groom, saddle-bags, etc. ; later on, when accompanied by my grandmother or any of their children, in a low phaeton, with a pair of ponies, among whom ' Poppet,' ' Skip Jack,' and Sly-boots ' are mentioned as special favourites, while occasionally a lady's horse, ' Juliet ' (another favourite), was in attendance ; and so, in that leisurely, enjoyable fashion, they traversed the country from 26 RICHARD TWINING I. [1749-1824] After the original picture by J. J. Halls. 27 THE REV. THOMAS TWINING, M.A. [1735-1804] ELDEST SON OF DANIEL TWINING AND ANN MARCH. From the Mezzotint by C. Turner, after J. J. Halls. 28 John o' Groat's House to the Land's End." It was at Dial House that this remarkable man spent the last decade of his life, driving up to the Strand, as often as his health permitted, in a pony -carriage, which he used to put up in Little Ormond Yard. Richard Twining died in 1824, but his younger brother, John, who had been for a long time associated with him " at the sign of the Golden Lyon," lived till 1827. Thomas Twining, the elder brother of Richard and John Twining, born at Devereux Court in 1735, took holy orders, and enjoyed for half a century a very high reputation as an erudite classical scholar, an acute critic, a brilliant letter- writer, a musician of great ability, and an accomplished linguist. His translation of Aristotle's " Poetics " is still spoken of with respect. At Colchester, where he held for a great number of years the historic benefice of St. Mary-at-the-Walls, he is respectfully remembered as a great pomologist and the original raiser of the still famous " Twining's Pippin." He was a friend of Johnson, Garrick, Burke and Burney ; formed part of Mrs. Thrale's "charmed circle"* at Streatham, and, on his death in 1804, was made the subject of an eloquent epitaph by the great Samuel Parr. Exactly twenty years before that, viz., on May 3rd, 1784, the Rev. Thomas Twining writes thus to his brother at the " Golden Lyon " : "Johnson's mind is fettered with prejudices civil, poetical, political, religious, and even superstitious. As a reasoner he is nothing. He has not the least tincture of the esprit philosophique upon any subject. He is not a poet, nor has any taste for what is properly called poetry; for imagination, enthusiasm, etc. His poetry I mean what he esteems such is only good sense put into good metre. He sees no promise of Milton's genius in his juvenile poems. He feels no beauties in Mr. Gray's odes. Did you ever see a more school-boyish criticism than his upon Gray ? . '. . In general I find my palate in matters of poetry continually at variance with Dr. Johnson's. I don't mean this alone as any proof that he is wrong. But the general taste of the * The Streatham Coterie is fully described in "Dr. Johnson and Mrs. Thrale," by A. M. Broadley ; John Lane, London and N T ew York, 1909. 29 most poetical people, of the best poets, are against him. I will not allow that a man who slights Akenside, abuses Gray, and mentions with complacence such versifiers as Pomfret, Yalden, Watts, etc., in the list of poets, can have any true poetical taste. He is a man of sense, and has an ear; that is all. ... With all this, Dr. Johnson is always entertaining, never trite or dull. His style is just what you say : sometimes admirable, sometimes laughable, but he never lets you gape. Without being philosophical or deep, like Hume, etc., he has his originalities of thought and his own way of seeing things, and making you see them. This is great excellence. There is in him no echo." The estimate of Johnson's character formed by the Rev. Thomas Twining in the year of Johnson's death has quite recently received the highest praise at the hands of no less an authority than Mr. Thomas Seccombe. The extraordinary insight which it shows into the character of the most illustrious of tea-drinkers must have been acquired by constant intercourse. It is more than probable that Johnson favoured the " Golden Lyon " with his presence as well as the " Mitre." A quarter of a century ago Richard Twining III paid a graceful tribute to the memory of his ancestral kinsman in his " Recreations and Studies of a Country Clergyman of the i8th Century," published by John Murray. The successful rule of Richard Twining I " at the sign of the Golden Lyon " was followed by that of his sons, Richard Twining II, George Twining and John Aldred Twining. Richard Twining II was born in Devereux Court on May 5th, 1772, educated at Norwich under the famous Dr. Samuel Parr, and lived till October, 1857, when he died at Bedford Place, Russell Square. He inherited in a very marked degree both the business capacity and literary tastes of his father. Parr's favourite pupil held for a time the important post of Chairman of the Committee of Bye-laws at the East India House. He was also a Fellow of the Royal Society and a member of the Society of Arts. While devoting his energies to the superintendence of the ever- increasing business in the Strand, to which a successful 30 RICHARD TWINING II. [1772-1857] After the original picture by Mrs. Carpenter. 31 TWINING'S TEA-HOUSE AND BANK CIR. 1830. After the original water colour by T. Hosmer Shepherd. 32 Bank (amalgamated with Lloyds in the days when trade and banking ceased to go hand in hand) was now attached, Richard Twining II found time to promote the best interests of both charity and science, and to follow in his father's footsteps in the matter of travel. Many interesting particulars concerning these expeditions are given in " Some Facts in the History of the Twining Family," published in 1896, by his daughter, Miss Louisa Twining, who is still living, while many of his letters are to be found in the " Papers of the Twining Family," edited by Richard Twining III, and given to the world by John Murray in 1887. Napoleon's threatened descent on the shores of England (1798-1805) found Richard Twining II in the prime of his vigorous manhood. He threw the same energy into the national defence movement of 1804-5 which loyal John Twining had displayed at the siege of Evesham during the Civil War.* For some years he held the important post of Lieut.-Colonel of the troop of Royal Westminster Volunteers, and proved himself to be as good a soldier as he was a capable man of business. Born in the Strand Banking House two years after Trafalgar, Richard Twining III, the eldest son of Richard II, became associated with the business while still in his teens. He lived well into the reign of King Edward VII, dying in March, 1906, at the patriarchal age of 99. For thirty years Richard Twining III found time to discharge the duties of Honorary Treasurer to the Public Dispensary in Carey Street, an institution in the welfare of which he took the greatest interest. He held at the same time the position of Honorary Treasurer to King's College Hospital, an institution which enjoyed from the rirst the support of the Twining family, where the name is perpetuated by the Twining Ward and in " Twining Street," close by. Many of the good works in which he participated received the active support of his sister, Miss Elizabeth Twining (1805-1889), the last of the Twinings of Dial House, who devoted the labours of a lifetime to furthering the causes of education and * Many interesting particulars of these times and of the old London Volunteer Corps will be found in " Napoleon and the Invasion of England," by H. F. B. Wheeler and A. M. Broadley ; London, John Lane, 1907. 33 philanthropy. As an accomplished botanist and an authority on other matters, Elizabeth Twining is placed amongst the eight Twinings whose careers are chronicled in the great " Dictionary of National Biography." During her residence at Dial House she restored the Twickenham parish almshouses and founded St. John's Hospital. For some time before his death Richard Twining III was familiarly known as the " Patriarch," not only " at the sign of the Golden Lyon," but by his colleagues on the Board of the Equitable Insurance Company, of which he was President and in the Board Room of which hangs the fine portrait by A. S. Cope, A.R.A., now reproduced. He was also made a J.P. for Westminster. It was during the prosperous reign of Richard Twining III "at the sign of the Golden Lyon," that the business assumed its present proportions. Unwilling to enter political life himself, Mr. Twining introduced the late Mr. W. H. Smith to the electors of Westminster. With Richard Twining III was associated Samuel Harvey Twining. The latter was the son of John Aldred Twining, already mentioned as associated with Richard Twining II in carrying on the great business founded by their great grandfather in 1710. Samuel Harvey Twin- ing, born March 27th, 1820, married the still surviving Rosa Herring, a lineal descendant of Dr. Thomas Herring, who became Arch- bishop of Canterbury in 1747), and lived until 1900, taking till the last the keenest interest in the great business now approaching the bicen- tenary of its establish- ment, but which has always consistently " marched with the A CHINESE INCENSE BURNER SENT times." HOME TO THE TWININGS. 34 RICHARD TWINING III. [1807-1906] After the original picture by A. S. Cope, A.R.A. 35 THE DELIGHTS OF THE TEA TABLE. From Opie's picture- 36 The poets and wits of the nineteenth century appear to have bestowed on Tea in general, and on " Twining's " Tea in particular, the same kindly attention as their famous predecessors. As a pendant to Hayley's verses : " While his sweet daughter with attentive grace Before him flies, his ready cup to place ; For TEA and politics alternate share In friendly rivalship his morning's care. Quick to his hand behold her now present The Indian liquor of celestial scent; Not with more grace the nectar'd cup is given By rose-lip'd Hebe to the lord of Heaven." One may appropriately quote from the " Autocrat of the Breakfast Table " the melodious lines : "As fresh as a pink On the other side Of the boarding-house table she sits, And her Tea she sips While I envy the cup That kisses her rosy lips." During the Reform Bill excitement of 1832, Thomas Hood, in an ode addressed to Mr. J. S. Buckingham on the Report of the Committee on Drunkenness, wrote : " Would any gentleman, unless inclining To tipsy, take a board upon his shoulder Near Temple Bar, thus warning the beholder Beware of Twining ! Are Tea Dealers indeed so deep designing As one of your select would set us thinking That to each tea-chest we should say Tu doces (or doses) Thou teachest drinking." More familiar to the great majority of readers is Theodore Hook's oft-quoted epigram : "It seems in some cases kind Nature hath planned That names with, their callings agree, For Twining the Teaman that lives in the Strand, Would be 'Wining* deprived of his T." 37 It is very interesting to compare the prices of Tea when Twinings first commenced business with those at present in force. From some of the early ledgers of the firm we find that in 1714 the cheapest quality was Bohea, which ranged from g/- to 25/- per lb., other sorts enumerated were Congou at 24/-, Pekoe 24/-, Imperial 24/-, Congou Bohea 2o/- ; whilst Green could be purchased from i6/- to 2o/-, and Bloom Green at i8/-. Thrifty housewives could obtain Tea Dust at io/-, and a better kind, Bohea Dust, for another 2/-. Coffee ranged from 5/8 to 6/-, Chocolate 2/6 and 2/9, and All Nut (that is with no sugar) at 3/6. In 1722 prices were somewhat lower. Bohea was reduced to 8/6, other qualities being g/- and io/-. Congou Pekoe sold from io/- to i2/-, and a new sort, Bloom Imperial, at the same price. Green Tea figured at from 6/- to io/-. In 1748 the price of this latter kind had increased, for, as will be observed from the old bill-head reproduced, ordinary Green was i6/- and Best Hyson 2o/-. Other growths sold about this time were Wire Leaf Hyson at I7/-, and Superfine Singlo at n/-. In 1757 the Finest Souchong was obtainable at I2/-, and the Finest Hyson at 6/- more. Chocolate was 4/-. In 1776 Congou was 6/-, whilst common Bohea was the same price, an inferior sort being 4/-. Bloom from 5/- to 1 1/-, Souchong, 7/- to i2/- ; Green, 7/- to I2/-; Hyson, n/- to 2o/- ; and Bloom Dust, j/~ and 8/-. In 1783 we find Bohea as low as 3/6, Fine at 6d. per lb. more, Congou from 5/- to 6/8, Green Tea from 4/6 to 7/4, Hyson from gj- to i4/-, Gunpowder the same price, and the very best Cowslip at i2/-. In 1791, on December I7th, Mrs. White, wife of the celebrated Gilbert White, of Selborne, purchased i lb. of Fine Hyson at io/-, and a like quantity of Chocolate at 4/-. Space will not allow of too many references, but a hasty glance shows that in 1825 Bohea could be obtained at 4/9, Congou, from 5/3 to 6/- ; Souchong, 6/6 to 1 1/6 ; Pekoe, g/- to i2/- ; Green, 7/6 ; and Hyson from 8/6 to 9/6. Previous to this date there had been a very high Excise Duty, which gave great encouragement to tea smugglers, and the news- papers of this period teem with accounts of their frequent 38 A TWINING BILL-HEAD OF 1748. AinoTcC'oinmodioujWayijojH-Dil In. m lilt: Strand through PaKinrir^'s lieul A TWINING BILL-HEAD OF 1757. 39 AN ENGLISH TEA-PARTY CIR. 1820. THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON TAKING TEA IN PARIS AFTER WATERLOO. 40 capture. In 1806 the duty was 90 per cent, on the sale prices, and in 1819 it had risen to almost a hundred. In 1848 Congou sold from 3/9 to 4/9; Souchong, 5/-; Hyson, 4/- to 5/-, and Gunpowder, 6/-. At this time there was a duty of 2/3. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the trade of the Teaman was largely represented in the Strand by a multitude of " Golden Canisters," " Sugar Loaves," " China- men," and so forth. To-day they have vanished utterly from the face of the earth. Twinings alone remains in all the great highway between Charing Cross and St. Paul's, as famous in 1910 as in 1710. Assuredly it is one more illustration of the immutable doctrine of the survival of the fittest. We live in an age of vanishing and vanished landmarks. Few of us remember Temple Bar; the Strand of 1910 bears little affinity to the Strand of 1900, scarcely any to the Strand of 1850, and none at all to the Strand of 1710. We look in vain for the quaint trade-signs of other days the "Grasshopper and Sugar Loaves," the "Jar and Orange Tree," the " Blackamoor's Head," the " Olive Tree and Sun," 'the " China-man and Tea Tub," and the " Green Canister." These were all famous tea-houses in their day, but they have disappeared from the map of London, and are as clean forgotten as the ornate trade-cards proclaiming the saving virtues of their wares, which great artists like Hogarth, Cipriani and Bartolozzi condescended to engrave. If it is a case of survival of the fittest the bicentenary of the " Golden Lyon," who has outlived his neighbours, the " White Hart," the " Green Dragon," and the " Blue Boar," to say nothing of a number of other "lions" distinguished by various colours, may almost be said to mark an epoch in Strand topography, as the two-hundredth anniversary of the foundation of the " House of Twining's " unquestionably does in the annals of one of the most important branches of British commerce. Thomas Twining in his lifetime became purveyor to the last of our Stuart sovereigns and the first two kings of the Hanoverian line. His successors and descendants who celebrate the coming anniversaryof 1910 can boast not only of having furnished tea to every sovereign 41 of these realms since the days of Queen Anne, but of holding at the present moment Royal Warrants from His Majesty King Edward VII and His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, as their great grandfather did, from the Prince Regent. In addition to these they also have the distinguished honour of being Royal Warrant Holders to His Imperial Majesty The German Emperor, Their Majesties the Kings of Italy and Spain, and His Royal Highness the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Like Dr. Johnson, Napoleon was an ardent tea-drinker, and some of his favourite tea-pots are still in existence. The silver tea-pot of Daniel Twining's celebrated customer in Bolt Court was sold for old metal by his executor, and narrowly escaped being ruthlessly broken up before its famous owner was laid to rest in Westminster Abbey. Another of Johnson's tea-pots a dainty specimen of white and blue Worcester, but holding two quarts, is preserved with reverent care amongst the treasures of Pembroke College, Oxford. It came into the posession of the Parker family through Mrs. Gastrell, with whom Dr. Johnson constantly took tea at Lichfield. There is no more eagerly sought-after plate connected with tea than Godefroy's aquatint " Le The Parisien ou Supreme Bon Ton au com- mencement du i9 4me Siecle," after a drawing by Harriet and published by Martinet. France is now a tea-drinking nation, and the beginning of the twentieth century finds a branch of the great Twining business very appropriately situated in the Rue du Quatre Septembre, Paris. The " Golden Lyon " has also a dependency in Drury Lane, Liverpool. The spirit of enterprise and energy which characterised Thomas Twining in 1710 distinguishes his kinsmen and successors (the three grandsons of Richard Twining III and a son of Samuel Harvey Twining) in 1910. It is that spirit, probably, which has determined the survivorship of the " Golden Lyon " as one of the few links between the London of Queen Anne and that of King Edward VII. It is with feelings of hopefulness, as well as of legitimate pride, that the House of Twining, "at the sign of the Golden Lyon in the Strand," now enters on the third century of its existence. A. M. B. 42 SAMUEL HARVEY TWINING. [1820-1900] U8TON .t SONS, I UC SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY A 000 131 765 o 'i'i.